Poland - Selling and buying
Reaching the consumers
- Real which belongs to the Metro AG group and has 27 stores,
- Hypernova (Ahold group) with 27 stores,
- Tesco with 37 stores,
- Auchan, Geant and Carrefour (respectively 19, 17 and 14 outlets).
Among the discount stores, we can recognize the names:
- Plus discount, etc.
Modern distribution (hypermarkets, supermarkets, discount) has a market share in the food trade of 35%. It is estimated that, ten years from now, Poland will have an identical distribution system to that existing in western countries.
On the other hand, specialized distribution does not escape either from internationalization:
- in the DIY sector, we find Leroy Merlin (who bought out Conforama in Poland).
- for household appliances, Ikea... are on the scene
- for sports items, we find Décathlon, Go sport, etc.
Market access procedures
Member of the European Economic Area which has guaranteed, since 1 January 1993, the free movement of most goods between European countries.
Multilateral agreements and bilateral agreements with many countries.
The EU has a liberal import regime where having to obtain import licenses is uncommon. However, you should ensure that importing a particular product does not need an import license.
At the European level, agricultural products are protected within the framework of the common agricultural policy and textile goods coming from China, Belarus, North Korea, Montenegro, Kosovo and Uzbekistan are subject to particular formalities and to import licenses or control procedures (export document, inspection document).
The European Union's Common Customs Tariff (CCT) applies to goods from outside Europe. In general, duty is relatively low, especially for industrial goods (4.2% on average).
The Customs declaration (SAD) is still in force for trade between Poland and third countries.
As part of the "SAFE" standards advocated by the World Customs Organization (WCO), the European Union has set up a new system of import controls, the "Import Control System" (ICS), which aims to secure the flow of goods at the time of their entry into the customs territory of the EU. This control system, part of the Community Program eCustomer, has been in effect since January 1, 2011. Since then, operators are required to pass an Entry Summary Declaration (ENS) to the customs of the country of entry, prior to the introduction of goods into the customs territory of the European Union.
A new system, the Modernized Customs Code (MCC) of the European Union, is expected to be fully put into place by 2013 although there are concerns that this deadline may be missed due to the complexity of the project.
Organizing goods transport
Goods freight by road represents 74.4 billion tonnes-kms.
The Polish rail network is the third-best rail network in Europe for its infrastructures, the second for the volume of goods transported, and is the leading employer in Poland. International lines (Intercity) give excellent service but the regional lines remain poor. Modernization is essential as regards signals and rolling stock, for about 40% of goods traffic is carried out by rail (47,400 million tons-km of freight).